What is IVF / TEST TUBE BABY?

IVF (In Vitro Fertilisation) is the process of surgically removing a woman’s eggs and fertilizing them with a man’s sperm in controlled laboratory condition.

Who requires IVF / TEST TUBE BABY?

IVF/ TEST TUBE BABY treatment is required if the fallopian tube are not patent or not functioning properly. In such cases the only way by which the sperm can meet the egg is by removing the eggs outside the body of the female and fertilising it with the husband’s sperm.

Couples who require IVF include:

⦁ Women with tubal diseases like blocked tubes, hydrosalpinx, and previous tubectomy done.

⦁ Patent tubes but non functional like in previous pelvic inflammatory disease or tubal tuberculosis.

⦁ Infertility due to male factor likeoligospermia ( low count), asthenozoospermia (less motility), teratozoospermia (abnormal sperms) or a combination of abnormalities like oligoasthenoteratozoospermia.

⦁ Ovulatory problems, Severe endometriosis etc

⦁ Increased age of the women and reduced number of eggs

⦁ Inability to conceive after 6 IUIs.

⦁ Unexplained infertility

IVF - How Is It Performed?

IVF involves the following steps:

⦁ Boosting egg supply by daily injections of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) or HMG (Human menopausal gonadotrophins) for 9-11 days.

⦁ During these 10 -12 days the growth of the eggs is monitored using some blood tests and sonography called as folliculometry.

⦁ Once the follicles (eggs) appear of adequate size, a final injection (trigger) is giving for maturation of the eggs.

⦁ Egg collection is done almost 34-36 hours after trigger. This procedure is a day care procedure done under sedation. There are no cuts on abdomen. Egg retrieval is done via ultrasound guided needle. Some women may experience a bit of vaginal bleeding after this procedure. Other than this there should not be any major discomfort and you can go home 3-4 hours after the procedure.

⦁ The husband then gives his semen sample which is washed and processed in the laboratory.

⦁ The eggs are then fertilised with your husband’s sperm in controlled laboratory conditions.

⦁ Sometimes if the husband sperm shows very low motility or no motile sperms (asthenozoospermia) then Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) is offered to the couple.

⦁ The women is given progesterone or hCG (chorionic gonadotrophin) to prepare the womb to receive an embryo.

⦁ Embryo transfer is generally done at blastocyst or cleavage cell stage, based on the patient’s age, general health counselling done beforehand.

⦁ You are given medications to support pregnancy for 2 weeks.

⦁ After this a blood test has to be done (serum b HCG) to confirm the pregnancy.

⦁ This entire process may take around 2-3 weeks.

What is ICSI?

ICSI means intra cytoplasmic sperm injection. It is a step higher than IVF in which one sperm is directly injected in one egg under the microscope. It is used in the following cases

⦁ Couples who have failed to achieve fertilization or had very poor fertilization following standard IVF treatment

⦁ Male partner has abnormal sperm parameters like severe oligospermia (very low count), severe asthenozoospermia (very less motility), severe teratozoospermia (high percentage of abnormal sperms) or a combination of abnormalities like oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (very low count, poor motility, abnormal sperms).

⦁ Azoospermic men (where semen sample contains no sperms) – In such cases the testis are producing sperms but due to block in the tubules or in the path through which the sperms come out from the testis, the sperms produced in the testis cannot come out. In such men, sperms are obtained micro surgically from testis or epidydymis by PESA, TESA, and TESE (PESA- Percutaneous Epididymal Sperm Aspiration, TESA – Trans Epididymal Sperm Aspiration, TESE – Testicular Sperm Extraction)

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